Track Categories

The track category is the heading under which your abstract will be reviewed and later published in the conference printed matters if accepted. During the submission process, you will be asked to select one track category for your abstract.

Neurology is to study and to deal with the disorders related to Nervous system. It is a branch of medicine which is to diagnose the disorders and to provide suitable treatment to all categories of the disorders, disease and conditions involving peripheral and central nervous system and their subdivisions.

Neurologists are the group of people who specializes in performing these complex treatments and diagnosis. They are trained to diagnose, treat and manage patients who have neurological disorders. They are also involved in clinical research, basic and translational research and clinical trials. They also treat and diagnose the disorders of musculoskeletal systems.

Neurology is highly dependent on the Neuroscience, as it implements the outcome of the Neuroscience to treat and diagnose the disorders. Neurology and Psychiatry often overlaps with each other but there is a significant line/ boundary between them relating to their treatment which is ill-defined.

The scope of Neurology is widening as the scientific advancements exploring the new techniques as well as disorders to deal with their occurrence and their treatment.

Neuroscience is a multidisciplinary branch of biology, deals with the study of the nervous system scientifically. It combines the study of physiology, anatomy, cytology, developmental biology, molecular biology and psychology to study and understand properties and basics of neurons and neural circuits. It also includes understanding of memory, perception, behaviour, learning and consciousness.

Neuroscientists are the one who specializes in the field of Neuroscience. The techniques used by neuroscientist confront drastic change in it from molecular to cellular studies of a single neuron to imaging of motor and sensory tasks of brain.

Due to scientific development, the area of Neuroscience has broadened to include various approaches and methods used to study the nervous system on different parameters.

Neuroscience has also given rise to neuroethicsneuroeducation and neurolaw.

It deals with the mental disorders referable to disorders or disease of nervous system. It is closely related psychiatryneuropsychology, and behavioural neurology, growing subsequently.

Some disorders:

  • Depression
  • Obsessive Compulsive disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Visual/ Auditory hallucination
  • Bipolar  Disorders                                                                                                                                                                      

 

Neurosurgery is a medical speciality which deals with the rehabilitation, diagnosis, surgical treatment and prevention of disorders which have the potential to affect any part of nervous system.  It includes the nervous system of spine, brain, cerebrovascular system and peripheral nerves.

Main Divisions:

  • Oncological Neurosurgery
  • Spinal Neurosurgery
  • Peripheral Nerve Surgery
  • Vascular Neurosurgery
  • Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • Skull base Surgery

Some neurosurgery methods are neuroradiology, endoscopic surgery, stereotaxy, conventional open surgery, microsurgery, and others.

Neurosurgeons are the one who specializes to perform surgeries related to Neurology and Neuroscience. Some diseases or conditions treated by neurosurgeons are hydrocephalus, spinal cord trauma, moyamoya disease, meningitis, spinal disc herniation and others.

The science of mind and behaviour with flavour of feelings and thought including consciousness and unconsciousness is known as Psychology. The aim of Psychology is to understand the properties of the brain to use it in understanding the behaviour of an individual and individual in group.

The people who practice Psychology as a profession are called Psychologist. They mainly explore the mental process and behaviour of an individual including brain functioning, cognition, phenomenology, perception, attention, emotion, personality and motivation.

Applied Psychology can be classified as clinical, behaviour analysis, forensic, critical, neuropsychology.

Psychological data can be used to assess and treat mental health problems, understanding and solving the problem related to human activity.    

Neuro-oncology is related to the study of spinal, brain tumors and neoplasms. The worst brain tumors or neoplasms are gliomas of pons and brainstem, brain stem tumors and glioblastoma multiforme.

Brain tumors are abnormal cell growth or abnormal cell formation inside the brain. The reason behind the brain cancer or tumor is unknown. There are basically two types of tumors: malignant and benign.

The most commonly used treatments to get rid of these deadly tumors are neurosurgical interventions, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, radiotherapy and surgery.

Survival rate of patients having brain tumors or cancer is very low and it depends on age of the patient, type of tumor, body composition of the patients and various other factors.

Child Neurology is a specialized branch of Neurology, which deals with the abnormalities of the Nervous system in children. This specialized branch of medicine includes or encompasses the abnormalities or disease of brain, spinal cord, blood vessels, autonomic nervous system, muscles and peripheral nervous systems.

The professional practitioner of Pediatric Neurology is called as Pediatric Neurologists. They specializes in this field how to figure out the treatment of neurological abnormalities found in children, infants or adolescent.

Some conditions in Pediatric Neurology:

  • Childhood Epilepsy
  • Sleep Disorders
  • Autism
  • Vascular Neurology
  • Behavioural Disorders
  • Brain Tumors

 

Neurogenetics is an emerging field or research, and its research contributes to understanding of function and development of nervous system. It is mainly focused on the study of Neuroscience and genetics to draw a conclusion related to neurological disorders and explaining the functioning, treatment and cause of the respected disorder.

Neurogenetics has a wide area of research and is growing very fast.  As one area of Neurogenetics, deals with the behavioural and cognitive aspect of it. Another area is focused on functioning of proteins, cell signalling, release of neurotransmitter, repair and development of cells and neuronal plasticity.

Methods of research:

  • Human Research
  • Animal Research
  • Statistical analysis
  • Recombinant DNA

Epilepsy is a disorder in which the nerve cells of brain starts functioning abnormally and leads to seizures. It is a group of neurological disorders. The reason of epilepsy is unknown.

But most of them occur because of stroke, birth defects, brain injury, brain tumors, and infection of brain through a process named as Epileptogenesis.

Seizures are the result of abnormal and in high amount of neuronal activity in the brain. During Seizure, person experiences very strange behaviour, symptoms, and sensations which sometimes lead to loss of consciousness. They can be controllable through medication. When it does not response to medication dietary changes, surgery or neurostimulation is considered.

The numbers of the epilepsy is very high as 80% of the cases are from developing countries.

It is more common in old age people.

Multiple Sclerosis is a disease which slowly disables the brain. In this disease, individual’s immune system attacks its own protective sheath of the nerve system. It leads to the improper communication between brain and body. This results in signs and symptoms of mental, physical and psychiatric problems. Eventually, this disease can cause the permanent damage or deteriorate them.

The cause of this Disease is blurred but it is believed that it is possible because of the failure of myelin producing cells or by the destruction of immune system. It is the most common disease initiated by immune system to affect the central nervous system.

There is no cure for the Multiple Sclerosis. Physical therapy has proven itself to be a good option available to fight it back and helps people to normal functioning.

There are some types of Multiple Sclerosis:

  • Relapsing-Remitting MS
  • Secondary Progressive MS
  • Clinically Isolated Syndrome
  • Primary Progressive MS

It is also known as Brain Imaging. It uses a group of various techniques to map or image the function, structure or pharmacology of nervous system. It is totally a new discipline or area within psychology, medicine and Neuroscience. The professional practitioner or the one who specializes in this technique are known as Neuroradiologists.

Neuroimaging has two broad categories: first one is Structural imaging; this area focuses on imaging of nervous system and large scale intracranial disease. Second one is Functional Imaging; this area focuses on diagnosing metabolic disease on a finer scale and for research purposes also.

Neuroimaging techniques:

  • Positron Emission Tomography
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Computed Tomography
  • Magnetoencephalography
  • Cranial Ultrasound
  • Diffuse Optical Imaging

Alzheimer is a neurodegenerative disease which advances with time and destroys pateint’s memory and other important mental functions. Symptoms of Alzheimer are difficulty in remembering events, mood swings, problem with language and disorientation. In most of cases, it is found that Alzheimer leads to Dementia.

Dementia is a category of brain disease which causes a long term and high decrease in individual’s ability to think and remember. In Dementia, Consciousness of an individual is not affected. Symptoms of Dementia are decreased motivation, decreased ability to think and remember, problems with language and emotional problems.

There is no cure for both the disease. As some proven methods for the prevention is prevent obesity, smoking, prevent high blood pressure, early education, exercise and social engagement can help the patient in recovering to an extent.

 

Neuropathology is the study of disease related to nervous system tissue. The study related to Neuropathology is conducted by small surgical biopsies or whole body autopsies. This pathological study can be associated with forensic pathology as brain injury can be related to the cause of death.

Neuropathologists are the one specialized in neuropathology. Their work mainly consists of examining tissue from brain and spinal cord through biopsy to get conclusion on diagnosis of a disease.

These disorders are group of nervous system conditions that cause abnormal movement or increased movement, which may or may not be voluntary or involuntary. These disorders can cause slow or oose movements. They are divided in two categories- hyperkinetic and hypokinetic.

Hyperkinetic movement disorders refer to repetitive, dyskinesia or excessive involuntary movements. Hypokinetic movement disorders refer to reduced movement, akinesia, and rigidity. Movement disorders have been known to be associated with autoimmune disease.

Some movement disorders:

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Dystonia
  • Blepharospasm
  • Essential Tremor
  • Straitonigral Deneneration

Neuroimmunology as the name suggest that it is a combination of Neuroscience (study of nervous system) and Immunology (study of immune system). Neuroimmunology plays a vital role in getting a conclusion that how to approach for the treatment of various neurological disordersNeuroinflammation and neuroimmune activation have shown to play a role to know the cause of various neurological disease and disorders.

Neuroimmunologists are there to discover or decipher the mysteries of various neurological disorders related to immune systemNeuroimmunology also contributes in drug designing and to produce various novel drugs for various disorders related to nervous system.

This area is a research based area with having a large span of untouched fields to be discovered. Neuroimmunology can provide us more insights in neuroimmunological diseases. This also helps in designing neural implants.

 

Neurons are the building blocks of the nervous system in brain and spinal cord. They do not self-reproduce and replace themselves as a result if they die our body cannot replace them.

Neurodegenerative diseases are related to the destruction of neurons of brain and spinal cord. These diseases are beyond cure and leads to the death of neurons and ultimately results in neurological disorders.

Some Neurodegenerative diseases are:

  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Dementia
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Huntington’s disease

Parkinson’s disease is a movement disorder. In this nervous system is affected as the period of disease increase. It affects Central Nervous System and is a long term neurological disorder which affects the motor system of the body. Symptoms related to this disorder show themselves slowly with the time.

It is believed that the main cause of this disease lies in the genetics of individual and environmental factors, but it is not clearly defined.

The main symptoms of this disease are shaking of body parts, slow movement of hands and inflexible muscles. Risk factors associated with this disease are age, sex, hereditary and environmental toxins. The complication which can an individual suffers is difficulties in thinking, swallowing problems, depression, sleep disorders, constipation and others.

The reason behind the Parkinson’s disease is still unknown that is the reason that its cure is still a mystery.

Cognitive Neuroscience is a branch of Neuroscience, which is concerned with the scientific studies of neural network and its mechanisms underlying cognition. It has a special focus on the neural network and their connections within the brain which are involved in mental processes.

Sometimes Cognitive Neuroscience overlaps with cognitive psychology. The method used in Cognitive Neuroscience includes the experimental procedures from cognitive psychology, psychophysics, affective Neuroscience, functional neuroimaging, behavioural genetics, and cognitive genomics.

Cognitive Neuroscience combines the computational neuroscience modelling and cognitive psychology to give birth to new theories about the brain. It is an emerging field of Neuroscience in which we are trying to control the functioning of our brain by studying the behaviour of the brain.

 

Neurological disease is the worst nightmare of an individual’s life. As the cause of those disorders are not known which leads us in darkness to perform the cure also. There are some therapies and procedures that a neurologist applies on the patient to make them better.

Some procedures are:

  • Electroencephalogram
  • Tensilon test
  • Exercise
  • Tapping
  • Cryotherapy
  • Vibration
  • Passive stretching

 

Neurorehabilitation is a process to treat neurological disorders and to aim to recover from the nervous system injury or to minimize it as much as possible. These processes are very complex. The features of Neurorehabilitation are patient-focused, lifelong, holistic, resolving, participatory and inclusive care plans.

The mostly treated conditions through Neurorehabilitation are cerebral palsy, brain Injury, stroke recovery, multiple sclerosis, parkinson’s disease, and others.

This process includes language therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, vision therapy, physiotherapy, and psychological therapy.

 

Stroke is a medical emergency condition in which blood supply to the brain is interrupted or reduced due to some reason, which results in decrease in oxygen and nutrients in brain. This interruption leads to the death of brain cells and eventually leads to death of an individual.

Symptoms of Stroke are difficulties in speaking, headache, paralysis or trouble in walking. It can be caused by any blocked artery leading towards the brain or bursting of blood vessels. The main risk factor for the Stroke is high blood pressure and other is obesity, smoking, diabetes, high blood cholesterol. Prevention for this is only by lowering the risk factors.